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Signals - 20 September 2020

Periodic multibit binary signals can be created by software, sent to microcontrollers, and then output as a sequence of 0 and 5 V electrical pulses at regular intervals (e.g. at from 100 us - 1 ms/bit):

These signals can also be generated and output by hybrid microcontroller-microprocessor devices such as the Pi:

Although there are an enormous number of such signals (for example, there are over 4 billion different 32-bit sequences, over 10^30 100-bit sequences, and over 10^300 1000-bit sequences. For comparison, there are thought to be "only" about 10^80 particles in the known universe), many of these signals are duplicates of one another via phase shifting, so that the actual lexicon of available, or useful, messages is somewhat smaller (but possibly still astronomical):

All of the circuit elements in this project take continuous inputs (any value from 0 - 5 V, which includes all binary and multi-step signals), and produce only binary outputs. Binary data can be converted to continuous form either by design (e.g. via active or passive summation or lowpass filtering) or through nominal transmission error and propagation degradation (e.g. noise and dispersion):

©Sky Coyote 2020